ordiresids {vegan}R Documentation

Plots of Residuals and Fitted Values for Constrained Ordination


The function provides plot.lm style diagnostic plots for the results of constrained ordination from cca, rda and capscale. Normally you do not need these plots, because ordination is descriptive and does not make assumptions on the distribution of the residuals. However, if you permute residuals in significance tests (anova.cca), you may be interested in inspecting that the residuals really are exchangeable and independent of fitted values.


ordiresids(x, kind = c("residuals", "scale", "qqmath"),
   residuals = "working", type = c("p", "smooth", "g"),
   formula, ...)


x Ordination result from cca, rda or capscale.
kind The type of plot: "residuals" plot residuals against fitted values, "scale" the square root of absolute residuals against fitted values, and "qqmath" the residuals against expected distribution (defaults qnorm), unless defined differently in the formula argument).
residuals The kind of residuals and fitted values. The argument is passed on to fitted.cca with alternatives "working" and "response".
type The type of plot. The argument is passed on to lattice functions.
formula Formula to override the default plot. The formula can contain items Fitted, Residuals, Species and Sites (provided that names of species and sites are available in the ordination result).
... Other arguments passed to lattice functions.


The default plots are similar as in plot.lm, but they use Lattice functions xyplot and qqmath. The alternatives have default formulae but these can be replaced by the user. The elements available in formula or in the groups argument are Fitted, Residuals, Species and Sites.


The function return a Lattice object that can displayed as plot.


Jari Oksanen

See Also

plot.lm, Lattice, xyplot, qqmath.


mod <- cca(varespec ~ Al + P + K, varechem)

[Package vegan version 1.16-32 Index]