treedive {vegan}R Documentation

Functional Diversity estimated from a Species Dendrogram


Functional diversity is defined as the total branch length in a trait dendrogram connecting all species, but excluding the unnecessary root segments of the tree (Petchey and Gaston 2006).


treedive(comm, tree, match.force = FALSE)


comm Community data frame or matrix.
tree A dendrogram which for treedive must be for species (columns).
match.force Force matching of column names in comm and labels in tree. If FALSE, matching only happens when dimensions differ, and in that case the species must be in identical order in both.


Function treeheight finds the sum of lengths of connecting segments in a dendrogram produced by hclust, or other dendrogram that can be coerced to a correct type using as.hclust. When applied to a clustering of species traits, this is a measure of functional diversity (Petchey and Gaston 2002, 2006).

Function treedive finds the treeheight for each site (row) of a community matrix. The function uses a subset of dendrogram for those species that occur in each site, and excludes the tree root if that is not needed to connect the species (Petchey and Gaston 2006). The subset of the dendrogram is found by first calculating cophenetic distances from the input dendrogram, then reconstructing the dendrogram for the subset of the cophenetic distance matrix for species occurring in each site.

The functions need a dendrogram of species traits as an input. If species traits contain factor or ordered factor variables, it is recommended to use Gower distances for mixed data (function daisy in package cluster), and usually the recommended clustering method is UPGMA (method = "average" in function hclust) (Podani and Schmera 2006).

It is possible to analyse the non-randomness of functional diversity using oecosimu. This provided specifying an adequate Null model, and the results will change with this choice.


A vector of diversity values or a single tree height.


Jari Oksanen


Petchey, O.L. and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecology Letters 5, 402–411.

Petchey, O.L. and Gaston, K.J. 2006. Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward. Ecology Letters 9, 741–758.

Podani J. and Schmera, D. 2006. On dendrogram-based methods of functional diversity. Oikos 115, 179–185.

See Also

taxondive is something very similar from another world.


## There is no data set on species properties yet, and therefore
## the example uses taxonomy 
d <- taxa2dist(dune.taxon, varstep=TRUE)
cl <- hclust(d, "aver")
treedive(dune, cl)
## Significance test using Null model communities.
## The current choice fixes both species and site totals.
oecosimu(dune, treedive, "quasiswap", tree = cl)

[Package vegan version 1.16-32 Index]